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J Toxicol. 2013;2013:347312. doi: 10.1155/2013/347312. Epub 2013 Mar 20.

Differential Effects of Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Ion, Rotenone, and Paraquat on Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells.

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  • 1REQUIMTE (Rede de Química e Tecnologia), Laboratório de Toxicologia, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

Abstract

Paraquat (PQ), a cationic nonselective bipyridyl herbicide, has been used as neurotoxicant to modulate Parkinson's disease in laboratory settings. Other compounds like rotenone (ROT), a pesticide, and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) have been widely used as neurotoxicants. We compared the toxicity of these three neurotoxicants using differentiated dopaminergic SH-SY5Y human cells, aiming to elucidate their differential effects. PQ-induced neurotoxicity was shown to be concentration and time dependent, being mitochondrial dysfunction followed by neuronal death. On the other hand, cells exposure to MPP(+) induced mitochondrial dysfunction, but not cellular lyses. Meanwhile, ROT promoted both mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death, revealing a biphasic pattern. To further elucidate PQ neurotoxic mechanism, several protective agents were used. SH-SY5Y cells pretreatment with tiron (TIR) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid sodium salt (NaSAL), both antioxidants, and N ω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, partially protected against PQ-induced cell injury. Additionally, 1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl)-4-(3-phenyl-propyl)piperazine (GBR 12909), a dopamine transporter inhibitor, and cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, also partially protected against PQ-induced cell injury. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PQ, MPP(+), and ROT exerted differential toxic effects on dopaminergic cells. PQ neurotoxicity occurred through exacerbated oxidative stress, with involvement of uptake through the dopamine transporter and protein synthesis.

PMID:
23710172
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3654346
Free PMC Article

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