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Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2013 Jun;28(4):306-17. doi: 10.1177/1533317513488919. Epub 2013 May 21.

The role of β-adrenergic blockers in Parkinson's disease: possible genetic and cell-signaling mechanisms.

Author information

  • 1Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation, Westminster, CA 92683, USA. lng2687765@aol.com

Abstract

Genetic studies have identified numerous factors linking β-adrenergic blockade to Parkinson's disease (PD), including human leukocyte antigen genes, the renin-angiotensin system, poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1, nerve growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. β-Adrenergic blockade has also been implicated in PD via its effects on matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase 2, and nitric oxide synthase. β-Adrenergic blockade may have a significant role in PD; therefore, the characterization of β-adrenergic blockade in patients with PD is needed.

KEYWORDS:

Parkinson’s disease; tremor; β-adrenergic antagonism; β-adrenergic blocker

PMID:
23695225
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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