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J Biol Chem. 2013 Jul 5;288(27):19359-69. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.477216. Epub 2013 May 16.

Differential androgen deprivation therapies with anti-androgens casodex/bicalutamide or MDV3100/Enzalutamide versus anti-androgen receptor ASC-J9(R) Lead to promotion versus suppression of prostate cancer metastasis.

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  • 1George Whipple Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Pathology, Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.


Despite the fact that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) can effectively reduce prostate cancer (PCa) size, its effect on PCa metastasis remains unclear. We examined the existing data on PCa patients treated with ADT plus anti-androgens to analyze ADT effects on primary tumor size, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values, and metastatic incidence. We found that the current ADT with anti-androgens might lead to primary tumor reduction, with PSA decreased yet metastases increased in some PCa patients. Using in vitro and in vivo metastasis models with four human PCa cell lines, we evaluated the effects of the currently used anti-androgens, Casodex/bicalutamide and MDV3100/enzalutamide, and the newly developed anti-AR compounds, ASC-J9® and cryptotanshinone, on PCa cell growth and invasion. In vitro results showed that 10 μm Casodex or MDV3100 treatments suppressed PCa cell growth and reduced PSA level yet significantly enhanced PCa cell invasion. In vivo mice studies using an orthotopic xenograft mouse model also confirmed these results. In contrast, ASC-J9® led to suppressed PCa cell growth and cell invasion in in vitro and in vivo models. Mechanism dissection indicated these Casodex/MDV3100 treatments enhanced the TGF-β1/Smad3/MMP9 pathway, but ASC-J9® and cryptotanshinone showed promising anti-invasion effects via down-regulation of MMP9 expression. These findings suggest the potential risks of using anti-androgens and provide a potential new therapy using ASC-J9® to battle PCa metastasis at the castration-resistant stage.


Androgen; Anti-androgen; Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP); Prostate Cancer; Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFbeta); Tumor Metastases

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