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Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2013 Apr-Jun;7(2):64-7. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2013.02.034. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Prevalence and risk factors of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients at University Sains Malaysia Hospital.

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  • 1Qassim University, Pharmacy School, Discipline of Clinical Pharmacy, Saudi Arabia. SALWASL2005@YAHOO.COM



Microalbuminuria is early stage of diabetic nephropathy as well as a marker of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria and associated risk factors among type 2 diabetic outpatients, attending a diabetic clinic in University Sains Malaysia Hospital (HUSM).


Prospective study design was used in the data collection process. The study sample consists of 1066 type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients who fit the inclusion criteria. All the patients were recruited from the diabetic outpatient clinics from HUSM. The study period was from January till December 2008. Microalbuminuria was diagnosed if the urinary albumin excretion more than 30 mg/g of creatinine.


A total of 1661 patients were included in this study. Microalbuminuria was diagnosed in 273 (25.4%) patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that microalbuminuria was positively associated with duration of hypertension (P=0.044), HbA1c (P=0.004), systolic blood pressure (<0.001), creatinine clearance (P=0.007) and the presence of neuropathy (P=0.004).


High prevalence of microalbuminuria was in type 2 diabetic outpatients. Predictive factors for microalbuminuria were duration of hypertension, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, creatinine clearance and the presence of neuropathy. The study suggests the need to screen for microalbuminuria early and the active management of modifiable risk factors in particular, hyperglycemia, hypertension and creatinine clearance, to reduce the burden of end-stage renal disease in the future.

Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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