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Prim Care. 2013 Jun;40(2):487-505. doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2013.02.009. Epub 2013 Apr 13.

Nutritional supplements and ergogenic AIDS.

Author information

  • 1Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt Sports Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. david.g.liddle@vanderbilt.edu


Performance enhancing drugs, ergogenic aids, and supplements come in many forms. The financial, personal, social, and health-related impact of these substances has wide and varied consequences. This article reviews common substances and practices used by athletes. It discusses the history, use, effects, and adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids, peptide hormones, growth factors, masking agents, diuretics, volume expanders, β-blockers, amphetamines, caffeine, other stimulants, and creatine. The evidence base behind the use, safety, and efficacy of these items as well as testing for these substances is discussed.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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