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Behav Brain Sci. 2013 Jun;36(3):204-5. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X1200221X. Epub 2013 May 10.

The problem with brain GUTs: conflation of different senses of "prediction" threatens metaphysical disaster.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604-3003, USA.


Clark appears to be moving toward epistemic internalism, which he once rightly rejected. This results from a double over-interpretation of predictive coding's significance. First, Clark argues that predictive coding offers a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) of brain function. Second, he over-reads its epistemic import, perhaps even conflating causal and epistemic mediators. We argue instead for a plurality of neurofunctional principles.

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