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ACS Chem Biol. 2013 Jul 19;8(7):1640-5. doi: 10.1021/cb4001662. Epub 2013 May 20.

An expanded genetic code in mammalian cells with a functional quadruplet codon.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln , Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, United States.


We have utilized in vitro evolution to identify tRNA variants with significantly enhanced activity for the incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in response to a quadruplet codon in both bacterial and mammalian cells. This approach will facilitate the creation of an optimized and standardized system for the genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids using quadruplet codons, which will allow the biosynthesis of biopolymers that contain multiple unnatural building blocks.

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