Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
PLoS One. 2013 Apr 30;8(4):e63099. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063099. Print 2013.

The impact of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 teichoic acid D-alanylation on the generation of effector and regulatory T-cells in healthy mice.

Author information

  • 1Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Abstract

To date it remains unclear how probiotics affect the immune system. Bacterial envelope components may play an essential role, as these are the first to establish bacterial-host cell interactions. Teichoic acids (TAs), and especially lipoteichoic acids, are the most pro-inflammatory components of the gram-positive bacterial envelope. This effect is dependent on D-alanyl substitution of the TA backbone and interactions with TLR2 on host cells. Although the pro-inflammatory properties of TAs have been established in vitro, it remains unclear how TAs affect immunomodulation in vivo. In this study, we investigated the role of TA D-alanylation on L. plantarum-induced intestinal and systemic immunomodulation in vivo. For this, we compared the effect of L. plantarum WCFS1 and its TA D-Alanylation negative derivative (dltX-D) on the distribution of dendritic cell and T cell populations and responses in healthy mice. We demonstrated that the majority of the L. plantarum-induced in vivo immunomodulatory effects were dependent on D-alanylation (D-Ala), as some L. plantarum WCFS1-induced immune changes were not observed in the dltX-D-treated group and some were only observed after treatment with dltX-D. Strikingly, not only pro-inflammatory immune responses were abolished in the absence of D-Ala substitution, but also anti-inflammatory responses, such as the L. plantarum-induced generation of regulatory T cells in the spleen. With this study we provide insight in host-microbe interactions, by demonstrating the involvement of D-alanylation of TAs on the bacterial membrane in intestinal and systemic immunomodulation in healthy mice.

PMID:
23646181
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3639951
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk