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J Appl Biomech. 2013 Apr;29(2):241-4.

Interactive effects of joint angle, contraction state and method on estimates of achilles tendon moment arms.

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  • 1Centre for Sports Medicine and Human Performance, Brunel University, London, UK.


The muscle-tendon moment arm is an important input parameter for musculoskeletal models. Moment arms change as a function of joint angle and contraction state and depend on the method being employed. The overall purpose was to gain insights into the interactive effects of joint angle, contraction state and method on the Achilles tendon moment arm using the center of rotation (COR) and the tendon excursion method (TE). Achilles tendon moment arms were obtained at rest (TErest, CORrest) and during a maximum voluntary contraction (CORMVC) at four angles. We found strong correlations between TErest and CORMVC for all angles (.72 ≤ r ≤ .93) with Achilles tendon moment arms using CORMVC being 33-36% greater than those obtained from TErest. The relationship between Achilles tendon moment arms and angle was similar across both methods and both levels of muscular contraction. Finally, Achilles tendon moment arms for CORMVC were 1-8% greater than for COR(rest).

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