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BMC Dev Biol. 2013 May 4;13:18. doi: 10.1186/1471-213X-13-18.

Expression of phosphatase of regenerating liver family genes during embryogenesis: an evolutionary developmental analysis among Drosophila, amphioxus, and zebrafish.

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  • 1Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Tzu-Chi University, No,701, Zhongyang Rd,, Sec 3, Hualien 97004, Taiwan. mingder@mail.tcu.edu.tw



Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) family is classified as class IVa of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP4A) that removes phosphate groups from phosphorylated tyrosine residues on proteins. PRL phosphatases have been implicated in a number of tumorigenesis and metastasis processes and are highly conserved. However, the understanding of PRL expression profiles during embryonic development is very limited.


In this study, we demonstrated and characterized the comprehensive expression pattern of Drosophila PRL, amphioxus PRL, and zebrafish PRLs during embryonic development by either whole mount immunostaining or in situ hybridization. Our results indicate that Drosophila PRL is mainly enriched in developing mid-guts and central nervous system (CNS) in embryogenesis. In amphioxus, initially PRL gene is expressed ubiquitously during early embryogenesis, but its expression become restricted to the anterior neural tube in the cerebral vesicle. In zebrafish, PRL-1 and PRL-2 share similar expression patterns, most of which are neuronal lineages. In contrast, the expression of zebrafish PRL-3 is more specific and preferential in muscle.


This study, for the first time, elucidated the embryonic expression pattern of Drosophila, amphioxus, and zebrafish PRL genes. The shared PRL expression pattern in the developing CNS among diverse animals suggests that PRL may play conserved roles in these animals for CNS development.

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