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Cerebrovasc Dis Extra. 2013 Feb 13;3(1):14-25. doi: 10.1159/000346113. Print 2013 Jan.

Initial 'TTP Map-Defect' of Computed Tomography Perfusion as a Predictor of Hemorrhagic Transformation of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

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  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo, Japan ; Department of Neurosurgery, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Yamaguchi, Japan.



Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) following acute ischemic stroke is a major problem, especially for the indication of reperfusion therapy including intravenous administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA). The specific predictive factors of HT have not yet been established. The present study evaluated the findings of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) images as predictors of subsequent HT to identify patients with low HT risk for reperfusion therapy such as IV rt-PA.


We retrospectively reviewed 68 consecutive stroke patients (41 males; mean age 72.9 years) with steno-occlusive lesions in the major trunk, including 10 patients who underwent IV rt-PA. Each HT was detected on a follow-up T2*-weighted magnetic resonance image until 2 weeks after stroke onset and categorized into four groups [hemorrhagic infarction (HI) type 1 and 2, and parenchymal hematoma (PH) type 1 and 2] according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) classification. We assessed clinical features and radiological findings between the HT and non-HT groups or the PH2 and non-PH2 groups. The efficacy of initial time to peak (TTP) mapping of CTP for predicting HT or PH2 was evaluated.


Thirty-four patients (50%) developed subsequent HT: 18 (52.9%) had HI and 16 (47.1%) had PH, including 9 PH2 patients (13.2%). IV rt-PA was not significantly associated with HT or PH2 occurrence. Forty of the 68 patients (59%) revealed defect areas on the initial TTP mapping (TTP map-defect), and 34 of these 40 patients (85%) developed secondary HT and 9 patients (22.5%) developed PH2. Initial 'TTP map-defect' was significantly associated with the occurrence of HT (p < 0.0001) and PH2 (p = 0.0070). Thirty of the 34 patients (88.2%) in the HT group experienced delayed recanalization of the occluded vessels, in contrast to only 8 of the 34 patients (23.6%) in the non-HT group. All patients of the PH2 group showed recanalization (p = 0.0042). In 40 'TTP map-defect'-positive patients, delayed recanalization was associated with the occurrence of HT (p < 0.0001) and PH2 (p = 0.0491). All 28 patients without 'TTP map-defect' did not develop HT, including 8 patients (28.6%) with delayed recanalization.


Initial 'TTP map-defect' of CTP could accurately predict HT risk including PH2 risk and identify low-risk patients even in the delayed period.


Computed tomography perfusion; Hemorrhagic transformation; Ischemic stroke; Time to peak

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