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Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2013 Apr;227(4):362-72. doi: 10.1177/0954411913478705. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

A novel distributed model of the heart under normal and congestive heart failure conditions.

Author information

  • 1Robotics and Machine Vision Lab, School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.


Conventional models of cardiovascular system frequently lack required detail and focus primarily on the overall relationship between pressure, flow and volume. This study proposes a localized and regional model of the cardiovascular system. It utilizes noninvasive blood flow and pressure seed data and temporal cardiac muscle regional activity to predict the operation of the heart under normal and congestive heart failure conditions. The analysis considers specific regions of the heart, namely, base, mid and apex of left ventricle. The proposed method of parameter estimation for hydraulic electric analogy model is recursive least squares algorithm. Based on simulation results and comparison to clinical data, effect of congestive heart failure in the heart is quantified. Accumulated results for simulated ejection fraction percentage of the apex, mid and base regions of the left ventricle in congestive heart failure condition were 39 ± 6, 36 ± 9 and 38 ± 8, respectively. These results are shown to satisfactorily match those found through clinical measurements. The proposed analytical method can in effect be utilized as a preclinical and predictive tool for high-risk heart patients and candidates for heart transplant, assistive device and total artificial heart.


Cardiovascular system; congestive heart failure; physiological modeling; recursive least squares

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