Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Proc Math Phys Eng Sci. 2013 Apr 8;469(2152):20120533.

Asymptotics for metamaterials and photonic crystals.

Author information

  • 1Department of Mathematics , Imperial College London , London SW7 2AZ, UK ; European Organization for Nuclear Research , CERN 1211 , Geneva 23, Switzerland.


Metamaterial and photonic crystal structures are central to modern optics and are typically created from multiple elementary repeating cells. We demonstrate how one replaces such structures asymptotically by a continuum, and therefore by a set of equations, that captures the behaviour of potentially high-frequency waves propagating through a periodic medium. The high-frequency homogenization that we use recovers the classical homogenization coefficients in the low-frequency long-wavelength limit. The theory is specifically developed in electromagnetics for two-dimensional square lattices where every cell contains an arbitrary hole with Neumann boundary conditions at its surface and implemented numerically for cylinders and split-ring resonators. Illustrative numerical examples include lensing via all-angle negative refraction, as well as omni-directive antenna, endoscope and cloaking effects. We also highlight the importance of choosing the correct Brillouin zone and the potential of missing interesting physical effects depending upon the path chosen.


cloaking; homogenization; metamaterials; negative refraction

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk