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J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Oct 30;61(43):10209-14. doi: 10.1021/jf305085r. Epub 2013 May 28.

Industrially applicable strategies for mitigating acrylamide, furan, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in food.

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  • 1Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, University of Udine , via Sondrio 2/A, 33100 Udine, Italy.


Acrylamide and furanic compounds, such as furan and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), are formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial foods. They are known to be toxic and, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, "possibly carcinogenic to humans". As this gave rise to concern, research was carried out to study their metabolism and toxicity and elucidate the mechanistic pathways of formation. So far, many papers have been published on acrylamide, furan, and HMF occurrence, precursors and mechanisms of formation, toxicity, and detection methods, as well as on possible routes to reduce their levels in food and, thus, consumer intake. This paper reviews the interventions suggested in the literature to mitigate the presence of acrylamide and furanic compounds in food. In particular, some technological measures potentially exploitable at the industrial level are discussed extensively. These are (i) preventive strategies based on the use of asparaginase and thermal input reduction (i.e., low temperature-long time dehydration; dielectric heating) and (ii) removal intervention by means of vacuum treatment, aimed to remove the already formed acrylamide and furanic compounds from the finished product.

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