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Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013 Apr;17(2):121-5. doi: 10.4196/kjpp.2013.17.2.121. Epub 2013 Apr 10.

Ginsenosides Have a Suppressive Effect on c-Fos Expression in Brain and Reduce Cardiovascular Responses Increased by Noxious Stimulation to the Rat Tooth.

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  • 1Dental Science Research Institute, Medical Research Center for Biomineralization Disorders, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Korea. ; Department of Oral Physiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Korea.

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the antinociceptive effects of ginsenosides on toothache. c-Fos immunoreactive (IR) neurons were examined after noxious intrapulpal stimulation (NS) by intrapulpal injection of 2 M KCl into upper and lower incisor pulps exposed by bone cutter in Sprague Dawley rats. The number of Fos-IR neurons was increased in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and the transitional region between Vc and subnucleus interpolaris (Vi) by NS to tooth. The intradental NS raised arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). The number of Fos-IR neurons was also enhanced in thalamic ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPMN) and centrolateral nucleus (CLN) by NS to tooth. The intradental NS increased the number of Fos-IR neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central cardiovascular regulation centers. Ginsenosides reduced the number of c-Fos-IR increased by NS to tooth in the trigeminal Vc and thalamic VPMN and CLN. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, did not block the effect of ginsenoside on the number of Fos-IR neurons enhanced by NS to tooth in the trigeminal Vc and thalamic VPMN and CLN. Ginsenosides ameliorated arterial BP and HR raised by NS to tooth and reduced the number of Fos-IR neurons increased by NS to tooth in the NTS, RVLM, hypothalamic SON, and PVN. These results suggest that ginsenosides have an antinociceptive effect on toothache through non-opioid system and attenuates BP and HR increased by NS to tooth.

KEYWORDS:

Antinociception; Cardiovascular; Ginsenosides; Toothache; c-Fos

PMID:
23626473
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3634088
Free PMC Article

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