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Endocrine. 2014 Feb;45(1):61-6. doi: 10.1007/s12020-013-9945-7. Epub 2013 Apr 28.

VEGF and GM-CSF levels in nodular thyroid diseases.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey,


VEGF is a specific mitogen for endothelial cells. GM-CSF is a key player in the regulation of steady-state functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate VEGF and GM-CSF levels in thyroid nodules >1 cm, which are negative for malignancy with fine needle aspiration biopsy. Age, serum VEGF, GM-CSF, TSH, fT3, fT4, anti-TG, anti-TPO, thyroid size, and thyroid volume were compared between 41 female patients and 20 healthy female volunteers. This study was performed with 41 female patients who were euthyroid and whose nodules were benign. Twenty healthy female volunteers were enrolled as the control group. VEGF and GM-CSF were assayed by ELISA; TSH, fT3, and fT4 were detected by electrochemiluminescence method and anti-TPO and anti-TG were detected by competitive immunoassay method. Only thyroid volume and anti-TG levels were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.007 and p < 0.026, respectively). Other parameters including VEGF and GM-CSF were not significantly different. VEGF has a weak positive correlation only with anti-TPO levels in the patient group (r = 0.325, p = 0.036). There was a weak positive correlation between anti-TPO and anti-TG (r = 0.388, p = 0.007). There was a positive correlation between nodule size and thyroid volume (r = 0.464, p = 0.015). GM-CSF was not correlated with any parameters. VEGF and GM-CSF were not found to be increased in euthyroid patients with benign nodules and they do not seem to play a role in development of simple nodular goiter.

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