Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 May-Jun;55(6):574-81. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2013.03.009.

A global perspective on psychosocial risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Author information

  • 1Department of Cardiology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Eccles Street, Dublin 7, Ireland.


Worldwide, there is variation in the incidence CVD with the greater burden being borne by low and middle-income countries. Traditional risk factors do not fully explain the CVD risk in populations, and there is increasing awareness of the impact the social environment and psychological factors have on CVD incidence and outcomes. The measurement of psychosocial variables is uniquely complex as variables are difficult to define objectively and local understanding of psychosocial risk factors may be subject to cultural influences. Notwithstanding this, there is a growing evidence base for the independent role they play in the pathogenesis of CVD. Consistent associations have been seen for general psychological stress, work-related stress, locus of control and depression with CVD risk. Despite the strength of this association the results from behavioural and pharmacological interventions have not clearly resulted in improved outcomes.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk