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Diabetes Care. 2013 Sep;36(9):2803-9. doi: 10.2337/dc12-2327. Epub 2013 Apr 25.

Diabetic retinopathy and microalbuminuria can predict macroalbuminuria and renal function decline in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients: Japan Diabetes Complications Study.

Author information

  • 1Health Care Center, Kitasato University, Kanagawa, Japan. moriy@kitasato-u.ac.jp

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the interactive relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetic patients and to elucidate the role of DR and microalbuminuria on the onset of macroalbuminuria and renal function decline.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

We explored the effects of DR and microalbuminuria on the progression of DN from normoalbuminuria and low microalbuminuria (<150 mg/gCr) to macroalbuminuria or renal function decline in the Japan Diabetes Complications Study (JDCS), which is a nationwide randomized controlled study of type 2 diabetic patients focusing on lifestyle modification. Patients were divided into four groups according to presence or absence of DR and MA: normoalbuminuria without DR [NA(DR-)] (n = 773), normoalbuminuria with DR [NA(DR+)] (n = 279), microalbuminuria without DR [MA(DR-)] (n = 277), and microalbuminuria with DR [MA(DR+)] (n = 146). Basal urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and DR status were determined at baseline and followed for a median of 8.0 years.

RESULTS:

Annual incidence rates of macroalbuminuria were 1.6/1,000 person-years (9 incidences), 3.9/1,000 person-years (8 incidences), 18.4/1,000 person-years (34 incidences), and 22.1/1,000 person-years (22 incidences) in the four groups, respectively. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of the progression to macroalbuminuria were 2.48 (95% CI 0.94-6.50; P = 0.07), 10.40 (4.91-22.03; P < 0.01), and 11.55 (5.24-25.45; P < 0.01) in NA(DR+), MA(DR-), and MA(DR+), respectively, in comparison with NA(DR-). Decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) per year was two to three times faster in MA(DR+) (-1.92 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year) than in the other groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

In normo- and low microalbuminuric Japanese type 2 diabetic patients, presence of microalbuminuria at baseline was associated with higher risk of macroalbuminuria in 8 years. Patients with microalbuminuria and DR showed the fastest GFR decline. Albuminuria and DR should be considered as risk factors of renal prognosis in type 2 diabetic patients. An open sharing of information will benefit both ophthalmologists and diabetologists.

PMID:
23620478
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3747927
[Available on 2014/9/1]
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