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Diabetes. 2013 Aug;62(8):2821-33. doi: 10.2337/db12-1256. Epub 2013 Apr 22.

Suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitioning enhances ex vivo reprogramming of human exocrine pancreatic tissue toward functional insulin-producing β-like cells.

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  • 1School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UK.

Abstract

Because of the lack of tissue available for islet transplantation, new sources of β-cells have been sought for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the human exocrine-enriched fraction from the islet isolation procedure could be reprogrammed to provide additional islet tissue for transplantation. The exocrine-enriched cells rapidly dedifferentiated in culture and grew as a mesenchymal monolayer. Genetic lineage tracing confirmed that these mesenchymal cells arose, in part, through a process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitioning (EMT). A protocol was developed whereby transduction of these mesenchymal cells with adenoviruses containing Pdx1, Ngn3, MafA, and Pax4 generated a population of cells that were enriched in glucagon-secreting α-like cells. Transdifferentiation or reprogramming toward insulin-secreting β-cells was enhanced, however, when using unpassaged cells in combination with inhibition of EMT by inclusion of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and transforming growth factor-β1 inhibitors. Resultant cells were able to secrete insulin in response to glucose and on transplantation were able to normalize blood glucose levels in streptozotocin diabetic NOD/SCID mice. In conclusion, reprogramming of human exocrine-enriched tissue can be best achieved using fresh material under conditions whereby EMT is inhibited, rather than allowing the culture to expand as a mesenchymal monolayer.

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