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J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2013 Jul;66(7):883-95. doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2013.03.030. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

Enhancement of bone consolidation in mandibular distraction osteogenesis: a contemporary review of experimental studies involving adjuvant therapies.

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  • 1IWK Health Centre, Dalhousie Pediatric Craniofacial Group, Department of Surgery, School of Human Communication Disorders, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.



One of the major disadvantages of mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) is the prolonged time required for consolidation of the regenerate bone. The objective of the present study is to perform a contemporary review of various adjuvant therapies to enhance bone consolidation in MDO.


A PubMed search for articles related to MDO, along with the references of those articles, was performed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to all experimental studies assessing adjuvant therapies to enhance bone consolidation.


A total of 1414 titles and abstracts were initially reviewed; 61 studies were included for full review. Many studies involved growth factors, hormones, pharmacological agents, gene therapy, and stem cells. Other adjuvant therapies included mechanical stimulation, laser therapy, and hyperbaric oxygen. Majority of the studies demonstrated positive bone healing effects and thus adjuvant therapies remain a viable strategy to enhance and hasten the consolidation period.


Although most studies have demonstrated promising results, many questions still remain, such as optimal amount, timing, and delivery methods required to stimulate the most favorable bone regeneration. As well, further studies comparing various adjuvant therapies and documentation of long-term adverse effects are required prior to clinical application.

Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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