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Chemosphere. 2013 Jul;92(3):304-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.03.031. Epub 2013 Apr 16.

Formation and contamination of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PeCBz, HxCBz and polychlorophenols in the production of 2,4-D products.

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  • 1State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085, China.


The concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and polychlorophenols in 2,4-D were investigated in this study. Two 2,4-D acid and three 2,4-D butyl ester enterprises were selected as typical 2,4-D producers. The total concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in the 2,4-D samples ranged from 355 to 35080ngkg(-1) and the corresponding TEQ values were in the range of 13.4 and 694.6ng WHO-TEQkg(-1). The concentrations of total PCBs in the 2,4-D were in the range of 16.1 and 8023ngkg(-1), and the WHO-TEQ values of the PCBs were between 0.057 and 108.3ng WHO-TEQkg(-1), while total PCBs were between 1486 and 47342ngkg(-1). The average emission factors were 414.4μg WHO-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 21.9μg WHO-TEQt(-1) for PCBs. The polychlorobenzenes and polychlorophenols impurities may play a key role in the PCBs and PCDD/Fs formation. The impurities of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in 2,4-D may increase the risk for the human and environmental health.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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