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J Gerontol Soc Work. 2013;56(4):318-34. doi: 10.1080/01634372.2013.777006.

Inclusion or exclusion? Exploring barriers to employment for low-income older adults.

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  • 1College of Social Work, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1162, USA.


Faced with economic uncertainty and declining retirement security, older adults have increasingly tried to remain in, or return to, the workforce in recent years. Unfortunately, a host of factors, such as ageism and changing skill requirements, present challenges for older adults seeking employment. Low-income older adults, in particular, may lack necessary education and skills and have limited access to job opportunities and training. In this review, we examine factors that inhibit and support employment for low-income older adults and explore the role of social work in facilitating their inclusion in the workforce.

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