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Cereb Cortex. 2014 Sep;24(9):2489-501. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht104. Epub 2013 Apr 18.

Altered neuronal response during rapid auditory processing and its relation to phonological processing in prereading children at familial risk for dyslexia.

Author information

  • 1Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience, Division of Developmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA and.
  • 2Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience, Division of Developmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
  • 3Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience, Division of Developmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA and Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

Abstract

Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a learning disability affecting 5-17% of children. Although researchers agree that DD is characterized by deficient phonological processing (PP), its cause is debated. It has been suggested that altered rapid auditory processing (RAP) may lead to deficient PP in DD and studies have shown deficient RAP in individuals with DD. Functional neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have implicated hypoactivations in left prefrontal brain regions during RAP in individuals with DD. When and how these neuronal alterations evolve remains unknown. In this article, we investigate functional networks during RAP in 28 children with (n = 14) and without (n = 14) a familial risk for DD before reading onset (mean: 5.6 years). Results reveal functional alterations in left-hemispheric prefrontal regions during RAP in prereading children at risk for DD, similar to findings in individuals with DD. Furthermore, activation during RAP in left prefrontal regions positively correlates with prereading measures of PP and with neuronal activation during PP in posterior dorsal and ventral brain areas. Our results suggest that neuronal differences during RAP predate reading instruction and thus are not due to experience-dependent brain changes resulting from DD itself and that there is a functional relationship between neuronal networks for RAP and PP within the prereading brain.

© The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

KEYWORDS:

developmental disorder; functional MRI; learning disability; pediatric neuroimaging; reading disability

PMID:
23599167
[PubMed - in process]
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