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J Nutr. 2013 Jun;143(6):938S-47S. doi: 10.3945/jn.112.172858. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

The CDC's Second National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the U.S. Population is a valuable tool for researchers and policy makers.

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  • 1National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.


The CDC's National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the U.S. Population (Nutrition Report) is a serial publication that provides ongoing assessment of the population's nutritional status. The Nutrition Report presents data on blood and urine biomarker concentrations (selected water- and fat-soluble vitamins and nutrients, trace elements, dietary bioactive compounds) from a representative sample of the population participating in the NHANES. The Second Nutrition Report (released in 2012) contains reference information (means and percentiles) for 58 biomarkers measured during all or part of 2003-2006, stratified by age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Where available, we presented cutoff-based prevalence data during 2003-2006 and data on changes in biomarker concentrations or prevalence since 1999. Blood vitamin concentrations were generally higher in older (≥ 60 y) than in younger (20-39 y) adults and lower in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks than in non-Hispanic whites. Nearly 80% of Americans (aged ≥ 6 y) were not at risk of deficiencies in any of the 7 vitamins studied (vitamins A, B-6, B-12, C, D, and E and folate). Deficiency rates varied by age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Approximately 90% of women (aged 12-49 y) were not at risk of iron deficiency, but only 68% were not at risk of deficiencies in iron and all 7 vitamins. Young women (20-39 y) had median urine iodine concentrations bordering on insufficiency. First-time data are presented on plasma concentrations of 24 saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Tabulation and graphical presentation of NHANES data in the Second Nutrition Report benefits those organizations involved in developing and evaluating nutrition policy.

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