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J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2013 Oct;17(4):430-9. doi: 10.1097/LGT.0b013e318281f182.

Yield and mode of diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or cancer among women with negative cervical cytology and positive high-risk human papillomavirus test results.

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  • 11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Southern California Permanente Medical Group-Fontana, Fontana, CA; 2Department of Gynecology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH; and 3Department of Pathology, Southern California Permanente Medical Group-Fontana, Fontana, CA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

In women with negative cervical cytology and positive high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) test results, we compared the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN 3) or cancer (CIN 3+) in women with previous abnormal cervical cytology, CIN, or HR-HPV with that in women without this history, and we determined their cumulative risk of CIN 3+.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We reviewed colposcopies for negative cytology and positive HR-HPV test results from 2007 to 2009 (colposcopy was done for previous abnormal cytology, HR-HPV, or CIN or if negative cytology and positive HR-HPV test results for 20-35 months). Women with negative cytology and positive HR-HPV test results in 2007 were reviewed to determine their cumulative risk of CIN 3+.

RESULTS:

Of the 513 women with colposcopy for negative cytology and positive HR-HPV test results, 367 had previous abnormal cytology, CIN, or HR-HPV greater than 35 months ago and 146 had negative cytology and positive HR-HPV test results for 20 to 35 months. Risk of CIN 3+ for women with negative cytology and positive HR-HPV test results with previous abnormal cytology, HR-HPV, or CIN who did not have previous colposcopy was 11.9% (8/67); for similar women with previous colposcopy, it was 2.7% (8/300); and for women with positive HR-HPV test result for 20 to 35 months, it was 7.5% (11/146). In 2007 to 2009, risk of CIN 3+ for women with cytology of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) with positive HR-HPV test result was 3.9% (60/1,540). Of the 1,726 women with negative cytology and positive HR-HPV test result in 2007, 381 (22.1%) were lost to follow-up. Of the 1,345 women with median follow-up of 44 months, 602 (44.8%) had 1 or 2 subsequent negative cytology and negative HR-HPV test results and 180 had subsequent positive HR-HPV test result without biopsy. Of the 563 women with biopsy, there were 711 evaluations. Invasive cancer was found in 4 and CIN 3 in 54 (cumulative CIN 3+ of 4.3%, 58/1,345). Half (29/58) of the cumulative CIN 3+ was diagnosed after subsequent abnormal cytology and positive HR-HPV test result.

CONCLUSIONS:

If referral to colposcopy of women with cervical cytology of ASC-US and positive HR-HPV test result (CIN 3+, 3.9%) is justified, referral to colposcopy of women with negative cytology and positive HR-HPV test results is justified if they have previous abnormal cervical cytology, CIN, or HR-HPV greater than 35 months ago but have not had previous colposcopy (CIN 3+=11.9%) or are persistently HR-HPV positive for 20 to 35 months (CIN 3+, 7.5%). The risk of CIN 3+ in women with previous abnormal cytology, CIN, or HR-HPV who have previous colposcopy (2.7%) is lower because these women have incident rather than prevalent CIN 3+.

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