Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
HIV Med. 2013 Sep;14(8):503-8. doi: 10.1111/hiv.12038. Epub 2013 Apr 16.

Advanced chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease and renal death among HIV-positive individuals in Europe.

Author information

  • 1Copenhagen HIV Programme, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. lrn@cphiv.dk

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Knowledge about advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-positive persons is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate incidence, predictors and outcomes for advanced CKD/ESRD and renal death.

METHODS:

Advanced CKD was defined as confirmed (two consecutive measurements ≥ 3 months apart) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) using Cockcroft-Gault, and ESRD as haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis for ≥ 1 month or renal transplant. Renal death was death with renal disease as the underlying cause, using Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) methodology. Follow-up was from 1 January 2004 until last eGFR measurement, advanced CKD, ESRD or renal death, whichever occurred first. Poisson regression was used to identify predictors.

RESULTS:

Of 9044 individuals included in the study, 58 (0.64%) experienced advanced CKD/ESRD/renal death [incidence rate 1.32/1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU); 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.66]; 52% of those who experienced the endpoint had a baseline eGFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) compared with 3% of those who did not. Using Kaplan-Meier methods, at 6 years from baseline, 0.83% (95% CI 0.59-1.07%) were estimated to have experienced the endpoint overall and 11.26% (95% CI 6.75-15.78%) among those with baseline eGFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . Independent predictors of the endpoint included any cardiovascular event [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.16; 95% CI 1.24-3.77], lower eGFR (IRR 0.64 per 5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ; 95% CI 0.59-0.70) and lower CD4 count (IRR 0.77 per doubling; 95% CI 0.62-0.95). One year after experiencing advanced CKD or ESRD, an estimated 19.21% (95% CI 7.84-30.58%) of patients had died, mostly from extra-renal causes.

CONCLUSIONS:

The incidence of advanced CKD/ESRD/renal death was low and predictors included traditional renal risk factors, HIV-related factors and pre-existing renal impairment. The prognosis following advanced CKD/ESRD was poor. Larger studies should address possible contributions of specific antiretrovirals.

© 2013 British HIV Association.

KEYWORDS:

HIV; advanced chronic kidney disease; end-stage renal disease; estimated glomerular filtration rate; kidney

PMID:
23590641
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk