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J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 May;61(5):715-22. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12216. Epub 2013 Apr 16.

Fracture risk in nursing home residents initiating antipsychotic medications.

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  • 1Department of Medicine and, School of Medicine, University of Kansas, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA.



To determine whether antipsychotic medication initiation is associated with subsequent fracture in nursing home residents, whether fracture rates differ between users of first- and second-generation antipsychotics, and whether fracture rates differ between users of haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine.


Time-to-event analyses were conducted in a retrospective cohort using linked Medicaid; Medicare; Minimum Data Set; and Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting data sets.


Nursing homes in California, Florida, Missouri, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.


Nursing home residents aged ≥ 65.


Fracture outcomes (any fracture; hip fracture) in users of first- and second-generation anti-psychotic and specifically users of haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. Comparisons incorporated propensity scores that included individual- (demographic characteristics, comorbidity, diagnoses, weight, fall history, concomitant medications, cognitive performance, physical function, aggressive behavior) and facility- (nursing home size, ownership factors, staffing levels) level variables.


Of 8,262 subjects (in 4,131 pairs), 4.3% suffered any fracture during observation, with 1% having a hip fracture during an average follow-up period of 93 ± 71 days (range 1-293 days). Antipsychotic initiation was associated with any fracture (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.39, P = .004) and hip fracture (HR = 1.76, P = .02). The highest risk was found for hip fracture when antipsychotic use was adjusted for dose (HR = 2.96, P = .008), but no differences in time to fracture were found between first- and second-generation agents or between individual drugs.


Antipsychotic initiation is associated with fracture in nursing home residents, but risk does not differ between commonly used antipsychotics.

© 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

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