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PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e61330. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061330. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

Molecular detection of Candidatus Scalindua pacifica and environmental responses of sediment anammox bacterial community in the Bohai Sea, China.

Author information

  • 1State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Bioengineering and Biotechnology in Universities of Shandong, Centre for Bioengineering and Biotechnology, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, China. DangHY20042000@yahoo.com.cn

Abstract

The Bohai Sea is a large semi-enclosed shallow water basin, which receives extensive river discharges of various terrestrial and anthropogenic materials such as sediments, nutrients and contaminants. How these terrigenous inputs may influence the diversity, community structure, biogeographical distribution, abundance and ecophysiology of the sediment anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria was unknown. To answer this question, an investigation employing both 16S rRNA and hzo gene biomarkers was carried out. Ca. Scalindua bacteria were predominant in the surface sediments of the Bohai Sea, while non-Scalindua anammox bacteria were also detected in the Yellow River estuary and inner part of Liaodong Bay that received strong riverine and anthropogenic impacts. A novel 16S rRNA gene sequence clade was identified, putatively representing an anammox bacterial new candidate species tentatively named "Ca. Scalindua pacifica". Several groups of environmental factors, usually with distinct physicochemical or biogeochemical natures, including general marine and estuarine physicochemical properties, availability of anammox substrates (inorganic N compounds), alternative reductants and oxidants, environmental variations caused by river discharges and associated contaminants such as heavy metals, were identified to likely play important roles in influencing the ecology and biogeochemical functioning of the sediment anammox bacteria. In addition to inorganic N compounds that might play a key role in shaping the anammox microbiota, organic carbon, organic nitrogen, sulfate, sulfide and metals all showed the potentials to participate in the anammox process, releasing the strict dependence of the anammox bacteria upon the direct availability of inorganic N nutrients that might be limiting in certain areas of the Bohai Sea. The importance of inorganic N nutrients and certain other environmental factors to the sediment anammox microbiota suggests that these bacteria were active for the in situ N transforming process and maintained a versatile life style well adapted to the varying environmental conditions of the studied coastal ocean.

PMID:
23577216
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3620062
Free PMC Article
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