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Biophys J. 2013 Apr 2;104(7):1495-507. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2013.01.059.

Proline facilitates membrane insertion of the antimicrobial peptide maculatin 1.1 via surface indentation and subsequent lipid disordering.

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  • 1School of Chemistry, Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Abstract

The role of proline in the disruption of membrane bilayer structure upon antimicrobial peptide (AMP) binding was studied. Specifically, (31)P and (2)H solid-state NMR and dual polarization interferometry (DPI) were used to analyze the membrane interactions of three AMPs: maculatin 1.1 and two analogs in which Pro-15 is replaced by Gly and Ala. For NMR, deuterated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (d54-DMPC) and d54-DMPC/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) were used to mimic eukaryotic and prokaryotic membranes, respectively. In fluid-phase DMPC bilayer systems, the peptides interacted primarily with the bilayer surface, with the native peptide having the strongest interaction. In the mixed DMPC/DMPG bilayers, maculatin 1.1 induced DMPG phase separation, whereas the analogs promoted the formation of isotropic and lipid-enriched phases with an enhanced effect relative to the neutral DMPC bilayers. In gel-phase DMPC vesicles, the native peptide disrupted the bilayer via a surface mechanism, and the effect of the analogs was similar to that observed in the fluid phase. Real-time changes in bilayer order were examined via DPI, with changes in bilayer birefringence analyzed as a function of the peptide mass bound to the bilayer. Although all three peptides decreased the bilayer order as a function of bound concentration, maculatin 1.1 caused the largest change in bilayer structure. The NMR data indicate that maculatin 1.1 binds predominantly at the surface regions of the bilayer, and both NMR and DPI results indicate that this binding leads to a drop in bilayer order. Overall, the results demonstrate that the proline at residue 15 plays a central role in the membrane interaction of maculatin 1.1 by inducing a significant change in membrane order and affecting the ability of the bilayer to recover from structural changes induced by the binding and insertion of the peptide.

Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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