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Phytochemistry. 2013 Jun;90:70-7. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.02.013. Epub 2013 Apr 3.

The characterisation of xyloglucanase inhibitors from Humulus lupulus.

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  • 1Institut de Chimie et Procédés pour l'Energie, l'Environnement et la Santé, Université de Strasbourg, ECPM, 25 rue Becquerel, 67 087 Strasbourg Cedex 2, France.


Phytopathogenic fungi secrete a powerful arsenal of enzymes that are potentially active against each polysaccharide component of the plant cell wall. To defend themselves, plants synthetise a variety of molecules that inhibit the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes. Xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase inhibitor proteins (XEGIPs) act specifically against the members of fungal glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12 in the CAZy database). In the present study, we describe the identification of three XEGIP homologues from hop (Humulus lupulus L.). When incubating each of the recombinant inhibitors with an enzymatic cocktail from Aspergillus aculeatus (Viscozyme®), the xyloglucan-degrading endoglucanase activity decreased to 15% and 5% for HlXEGIP1 and HlXEGIP2, respectively, whereas no inhibition of the Viscozyme® enzymes was observed for the third (also called HlXEGIP homologue 3, or HlXEGIPh3). Fungal enzymatic cocktails from 20 different species also showed xyloglucan-degrading endoglucanase activities, and most of them were inhibited by HlXEGIP1 and -2. Furthermore, a real time RT-PCR analysis revealed variations in the spatial distribution of the genes encoding the three inhibitors and differential expression during development and (a) biotic stress. The role of XEGIPs in the plant-fungus interaction is discussed, and a model suggesting a distinct role of these XEGIP homologues is proposed: HlXEGIP1 may act in cases of abiotic stress, while HlXEGIP2 reacts to biotic stress, and physiological development may be influenced by HlXEGIPh3.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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