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J Clin Periodontol. 2013 May;40(5):457-73. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12053.

Effect of pregnancy on gingival inflammation in systemically healthy women: a systematic review.

Author information

  • 1Section of Graduate Periodontology, University Complutense, Madrid, Spain. efigueruiz@gmail.com

Abstract

AIM:

To obtain an overall quantitative estimate of the association between pregnancy and gingival inflammation.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Medline and EMBASE databases were searched through August 2011. Prospective cohort or cross-sectional studies assessing the effect of pregnancy on gingival inflammation evaluated by the gingival index (GI) and/or bleeding on probing were included. Meta-analyses were performed if possible.

RESULTS:

Forty-four articles representing 33 studies (14 cohort and 19 cross-sectional) were included. Meta-analyses, performed whenever possible, revealed (1) a significantly lower GI in pregnant women in the first term compared with those in their second or third term of pregnancy; (2) a lower mean GI score in post-partum women compared with women in their second [WMD = 0.143; 95% CI (0.031; 0.255); p = 0.012] or third term [WMD = 0.256; 95% CI (0.151; 0.360); p < 0.001] of pregnancy, when considering cohort studies; (3) Non-pregnant women had lower mean GI values than women in their second or third term of pregnancy. Small changes in plaque levels were reported.

CONCLUSION:

Despite the limited number of studies included in the meta-analyses, the present systematic review confirms the existence of a significant increase in GI throughout pregnancy and between pregnant versus post-partum or non-pregnant women, without a concomitant increase in plaque levels.

© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

PMID:
23557432
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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