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Muscle Nerve. 2013 Oct;48(4):591-3. doi: 10.1002/mus.23860. Epub 2013 Aug 30.

Local anesthetic effects on gene transcription in human skeletal muscle biopsies.

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  • 1Human Performance Laboratory, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, 47306, USA.



We examined if epinephrine in the local anesthetic to help control incision-related bleeding interferes with molecular measurements obtained with the Duchenne-Bergström percutaneous needle biopsy technique for sampling human skeletal muscle.


Three groups received 2.5-3.0 ml of 1% lidocaine in 2 injections: (1) 0.5-1.0 ml superficially, which varied among the groups according to (i) -Epi; intra- and subcutaneous without epinephrine, (ii) +Epi -Fascia; intra- and subcutaneous with epinephrine, avoiding the fascia, and (iii) +Epi +Fascia; intra- and subcutaneous with epinephrine, directing a small amount (∽0.2 ml) into the fascia area; and (2) ∽2.0 ml without epinephrine into the fascia area for all subjects. A muscle biopsy was obtained 5-10 min later for IL-6 and MuRF-1 mRNA levels.


IL-6 mRNA levels were low in -Epi and +Epi -Fascia, but ∽300-fold higher in +Epi +Fascia. MuRF-1 mRNA levels were similar among the groups.


Lidocaine with epinephrine can confound intramuscular measurements from needle biopsies, but this can be avoided with a careful injection approach.

Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


IL-6; MuRF-1; epinephrine; lidocaine; xylocaine

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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