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Public Health Nutr. 2014 May;17(5):1107-13. doi: 10.1017/S1368980013000645. Epub 2013 Apr 3.

Nutrient intake and dietary patterns of relevance to dental health of 12-year-old Libyan children.

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  • 11 Centre for Oral Health Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.



There are few data on the dietary intake of children in Libya, and none on free sugars intake. The present study aimed to report the intake of macronutrients and eating habits of relevance to dental health in a group of Libyan schoolchildren and to investigate any gender differences for these variables.


Dietary information was obtained from a randomly selected sample using an estimated 3 d food diary. Dietary data were coded using food composition tables and entered into a Microsoft® Access database. Intakes of energy, macronutrients, sugars and the amount of acidic items consumed were determined using purpose-written programs.


Benghazi, Libya.


Schoolchildren aged 12 years.


One hundred and eighty children (ninety-two boys and eighty-eight girls) completed the study. Their mean age was 12·3 (sd 0·29) years. The average daily energy intake was 7·01 (sd 1·54) MJ/d. The percentage contributions to energy intake from protein, fat and carbohydrate were 16 %, 30 % and 54 %, respectively. Total sugars contributed 20·4 % of the daily energy intake, and free sugars 12·6 %. The median daily intake of acidic items was 203 g/d, and of acidic drinks was 146 g/d. There were no statistically significant differences in nutrient intakes between genders. Intake of acidic items was higher in girls (P < 0·001).


The contribution to energy intake from macronutrients was in accordance with global nutrition guidelines. The acidic drinks intake was low compared with other populations, while free sugars intake was above the recommended threshold of 10 % of energy intake.

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