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J Infect. 2013 Jul;67(1):43-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2013.03.008. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

High prevalence of renal dysfunction and association with risk of death amongst HIV-infected Ghanaians.

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  • 1Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana.



To determine the prevalence of HIV-associated renal dysfunction (RD), identify risk factors for RD and explore the association between baseline renal function and mortality in an HIV-infected population in Ghana.


Creatinine clearance (CrCl) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated in patients attending an HIV clinic between 2004 and 2011 using Cockcroft-Gault, MDRD and CKD-EPI formulae. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with RD and Kaplan-Meier/Cox proportional regression analyses to explore associations between baseline CrCl/eGFR and subsequent mortality.


In 3137 patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) the frequency (95%-CI) of RD, defined by CrCl <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) using Cockroft-Gault formula was 38.8% (37.1-40.5%). RD prevalence in a sub-population of 238 patients, including proteinuria in the definition, was 15.3% (10.3-22.1%) in ART-treated and 43.6% (34.0-53.7%) in ART-naïve patients. RD at baseline was associated with increasing age, low CD4 counts, advanced WHO stage and female gender. Cox proportional hazard analysis identified an increased hazard of death with decreasing CrCl, HR 1.46 (1.31-1.63) for each tertile lower than CrCl of 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2).


RD is very common in HIV-infected ART-naïve Ghanaians, and associated with increased risk of mortality. Screening and monitoring of RD is important in this setting, particularly as tenofovir use increases.

Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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