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J Clin Epidemiol. 2013 Jul;66(7):759-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2012.12.016. Epub 2013 Mar 27.

The Short Form 36 English and Chinese versions were equivalent in a multiethnic Asian population.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, National University of Singapore, c/o National University Hospital, University Medicine Cluster, Level 10, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228.



The primary aim of this article was to evaluate measurement equivalence of the English and Chinese versions of the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2) and Short Form 6D (SF-6D).


In this cross-sectional study, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was measured from 4,973 ethnic Chinese subjects using the SF-36v2 questionnaire. Measurement equivalence of domain and utility scores for the English- and Chinese-language SF-36v2 and SF-6D were assessed by examining the score differences between the two languages using linear regression models, with and without adjustment for known determinants of HRQoL. Equivalence was achieved if the 90% confidence interval (CI) of the differences in scores, due to language, fell within a predefined equivalence margin.


Compared with English-speaking Chinese, Chinese-speaking Chinese were significantly older (47.6 vs. 55.5 years). All SF-36v2 domains were equivalent after adjusting for known HRQoL. SF-6D utility/items had the 90% CI either fully or partially overlap their predefined equivalence margin.


The English- and Chinese-language versions of the SF-36v2 and SF-6D demonstrated equivalence.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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