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Am J Vet Res. 2013 Apr;74(4):530-4. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.74.4.530.

Physiologic and antinociceptive effects following intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in combination with tiletamine-zolazepam in llamas.

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  • 1Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.



To evaluate antinociceptive and selected effects associated with IM administration of xylazine hydrochloride in combination with tiletamine-zolazepam in llamas.


8 adult male llamas. Procedures-Each llama received tiletamine-zolazepam (2 mg/kg) combined with either xylazine (0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution IM (treatments designated as TZ-Xy0.1, TZ-Xy0.2, TZ-Xy0.4, and TZ-Sal, respectively) at 1-week intervals. Selected cardiorespiratory variables were assessed during lateral recumbency and anesthesia, and recovery characteristics were recorded. Duration of antinociception was evaluated by clamping a claw every 5 minutes.


Interval between treatment administration and lateral recumbency for TZ-Xy0.4 was shorter than that for TZ-Xy0.1 or TZ-Sal. Mean ± SEM duration of antinociception was longer for TZ-Xy0.4 (51.3 ± 7. 0 minutes), compared with findings for TZ-Xy0.2 (31.9 ± 6.0 minutes), TZ-Xy0.1 (8.1 ± 4.0 minutes), and TZ-Sal (0.6 ± 0.6 minutes). Interval between treatment administration and standing was longer for TZ-Xy0.4 (112 ± 9 minutes) than it was for TZ-Xy0.2 (77 ± 9 minutes) or TZ-Sal (68 ± 9 minutes). Mean heart and respiratory rates during the first 30 minutes for TZ-Sal exceeded values for the other treatments. Administration of TZ-Xy0.2 and TZ-Xy0.4 resulted in Pao2 < 60 mm Hg at 5 minutes after llamas attained lateral recumbency, and values differed from TZ-Sal findings at 5, 10, and 15 minutes; Paco2 was greater for TZ-Xy0.2 and TZ-Xy0.4 than for TZ-Sal at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes.


Xylazine (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) increased the duration of antinociception in llamas anesthetized with tiletamine-zolazepam.

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