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J Vis Exp. 2013 Mar 8;(73):e4326. doi: 10.3791/4326.

Non-invasive optical imaging of the lymphatic vasculature of a mouse.

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  • 1Center for Molecular Imaging, University of Texas Health Science Center-Houston, USA.

Abstract

The lymphatic vascular system is an important component of the circulatory system that maintains fluid homeostasis, provides immune surveillance, and mediates fat absorption in the gut. Yet despite its critical function, there is comparatively little understanding of how the lymphatic system adapts to serve these functions in health and disease. Recently, we have demonstrated the ability to dynamically image lymphatic architecture and lymph "pumping" action in normal human subjects as well as in persons suffering lymphatic dysfunction using trace administration of a near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye and a custom, Gen III-intensified imaging system. NIRF imaging showed dramatic changes in lymphatic architecture and function with human disease. It remains unclear how these changes occur and new animal models are being developed to elucidate their genetic and molecular basis. In this protocol, we present NIRF lymphatic, small animal imaging using indocyanine green (ICG), a dye that has been used for 50 years in humans, and a NIRF dye-labeled cyclic albumin binding domain (cABD-IRDye800) peptide that preferentially binds mouse and human albumin. Approximately 5.5 times brighter than ICG, cABD-IRDye800 has a similar lymphatic clearance profile and can be injected in smaller doses than ICG to achieve sufficient NIRF signals for imaging. Because both cABD-IRDye800 and ICG bind to albumin in the interstitial space, they both may depict active protein transport into and within the lymphatics. Intradermal (ID) injections (5-50 μl) of ICG (645 μM) or cABD-IRDye800 (200 μM) in saline are administered to the dorsal aspect of each hind paw and/or the left and right side of the base of the tail of an isoflurane-anesthetized mouse. The resulting dye concentration in the animal is 83-1,250 μg/kg for ICG or 113-1,700 μg/kg for cABD-IRDye800. Immediately following injections, functional lymphatic imaging is conducted for up to 1 hr using a customized, small animal NIRF imaging system. Whole animal spatial resolution can depict fluorescent lymphatic vessels of 100 microns or less, and images of structures up to 3 cm in depth can be acquired. Images are acquired using V++ software and analyzed using ImageJ or MATLAB software. During analysis, consecutive regions of interest (ROIs) encompassing the entire vessel diameter are drawn along a given lymph vessel. The dimensions for each ROI are kept constant for a given vessel and NIRF intensity is measured for each ROI to quantitatively assess "packets" of lymph moving through vessels.

PMID:
23524658
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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