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Neurobiol Aging. 2013 Sep;34(9):2110-24. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.02.007. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ regulates glial proinflammatory gene expression.

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  • 1Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.


The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ (C/EBPδ) is expressed in activated astrocytes and microglia and can regulate the expression of potentially detrimental proinflammatory genes. The objective of this study was to determine the role of C/EBPδ in glial activation. To this end, glial activation was analyzed in primary glial cultures and in the central nervous system from wild type and C/EBPδ(-/-) mice. In vitro studies showed that the expression of proinflammatory genes nitric oxide (NO)synthase-2, cyclooxygenase-2, and interleukin (IL)-6 in glial cultures, and the neurotoxicity elicited by microglia in neuron-microglia cocultures, were decreased in the absence of C/EBPδ when cultures were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon γ, but not with LPS alone. In C/EBPδ(-/-) mice, systemic LPS-induced brain expression of NO synthase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was attenuated. Finally, increased C/EBPδ nuclear expression was observed in microglial cells from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and G93A-SOD1 mice spinal cord. These results demonstrate that C/EBPδ plays a key role in the regulation of proinflammatory gene expression in glial activation and suggest that C/EBPδ inhibition has potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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