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J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat. 2013 Mar;62(2):287-308.

A model-based framework for air quality indices and population risk evaluation, with an application to the analysis of Scottish air quality data.

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  • 1University of Bergamo Italy.


The paper is devoted to the development of a statistical framework for air quality assessment at the country level and for the evaluation of the ambient population exposure and risk with respect to airborne pollutants. The framework is based on a multivariate space-time model and on aggregated indices defined at different levels of aggregation in space and time. The indices are evaluated, uncertainty included, by considering both the model outputs and the information on the population spatial distribution. The framework is applied to the analysis of air quality data for Scotland for 2009 referring to European and Scottish air quality legislation.


Air quality indices; Ambient exposure and risk; Multivariate space–time models; Unbalanced networks

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