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Chemosphere. 2013 May;91(6):771-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.02.011. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Determination of selected perfluorinated compounds and polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants in human milk.

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  • 1Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada.


Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are used on food contact paper to impart oil/grease resistance and have been shown to be able to migrate into food. The biotransformation of the congeners belonging to this class of compounds is considered to be a potential source of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). In this study, two methods were developed for the determination of seven perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and eight polyfluorinated disubstituted phosphate surfactants (diPAPS) in human milk. PFCs were extracted from milk using an ion-pairing technique; while the diPAPs extraction involved a sample clean up using solid phase extraction. Analyses of all compounds in this study were performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Of the seven PFCs analyzed in human milk, only perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was detected in eleven out of thirteen (85%) individual human milk samples analyzed, with a concentration range of <0.072 to 0.52 ng mL(-1). Four diPAPS were detected and quantified in human milk samples. Eight out of thirteen samples contained 4:2 diPAP with a concentration range of <0.01-0.26 ng mL(-1); 6:2 diPAP was detected in five samples with a concentration range of <0.01-0.14 ng mL(-1); 8:2 diPAP was detected in only three samples with concentrations of 0.21, 0.27, and 0.30 ng mL(-1). The 10:2 diPAP was quantified in seven milk samples, with concentration range of <0.01-0.83 ng mL(-1). No correlation was established between PFCAs and PAPS levels in this small sample size. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to report the presence of PAPS in human milk.

Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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