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Nutr Metab (Lond). 2013 Mar 15;10(1):28. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-10-28.

Supplementation of carnitine leads to an activation of the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and down regulates the E3 ligase MuRF1 in skeletal muscle of rats.

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  • 1Institute of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, Giessen, 35392, Germany.



Recently, it has been shown that carnitine down-regulates genes involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in muscle of pigs and rats. The mechanisms underlying this observation are yet unknown. Based on the previous finding that carnitine increases plasma IGF-1 concentration, we investigated the hypothesis that carnitine down-regulates genes of the UPS by modulation of the of the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway which is an important regulator of UPS activity in muscle.


Male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged four weeks, were fed either a control diet with a low native carnitine concentration or the same diet supplemented with carnitine (1250 mg/kg diet) for four weeks. Components of the UPS and IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in skeletal muscle were examined.


Rats fed the diet supplemented with carnitine had lower mRNA and protein levels of MuRF1, the most important E3 ubiquitin ligase in muscle, decreased concentrations of ubiquitin-protein conjugates in skeletal muscle and higher IGF-1 concentration in plasma than control rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, in skeletal muscle of rats fed the diet supplemented with carnitine there was an activation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, as indicated by increased protein levels of phosphorylated (activated) Akt1 (P < 0.05).


The present study shows that supplementation of carnitine markedly decreases the expression of MuRF1 and concentrations of ubiquitinated proteins in skeletal muscle of rats, indicating a diminished degradation of myofibrillar proteins by the UPS. The study moreover shows that supplementation of carnitine leads to an activation of the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway which in turn might contribute to the observed down-regulation of MuRF1 and muscle protein ubiquitination.

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