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Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Mar-Apr;48(2):192-209. doi: 10.3109/10409238.2013.771132. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN): an allosterically regulated, processive and mRNA cap-interacting deadenylase.

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  • 1Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Program of Chemical Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.


Deadenylation of eukaryotic mRNA is a mechanism critical for mRNA function by influencing mRNA turnover and efficiency of protein synthesis. Here, we review poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN), which is one of the biochemically best characterized deadenylases. PARN is unique among the currently known eukaryotic poly(A) degrading nucleases, being the only deadenylase that has the capacity to directly interact during poly(A) hydrolysis with both the m(7)G-cap structure and the poly(A) tail of the mRNA. In short, PARN is a divalent metal-ion dependent poly(A)-specific, processive and cap-interacting 3'-5' exoribonuclease that efficiently degrades poly(A) tails of eukaryotic mRNAs. We discuss in detail the mechanisms of its substrate recognition, catalysis, allostery and processive mode of action. On the basis of biochemical and structural evidence, we present and discuss a working model for PARN action. Models of regulation of PARN activity by trans-acting factors are discussed as well as the physiological relevance of PARN.

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