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PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58322. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058322. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Effects of age and larval nutrition on phenotypic expression of insecticide-resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes.

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  • 1Department of Animal Ecology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.


Insecticide-resistance threatens the control of mosquito-borne diseases like malaria or dengue fever. To ensure sustainable vector control we need a full understanding of the factors driving the evolution of resistance. We test the hypothesis that the expression of insecticide-resistance depends on the available resources by rearing genetically DDT-resistant and sensitive larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes at three diet regimes, which correspond to 40%, 70% and 100% of the normal diet and exposing the adult females to DDT 5, 10 and 15 days after emergence. In both colonies post-exposure survival decreased with age at exposure. Additionally, the food levels and DDT-resistance were positively correlated in both colonies, although only in the DDT-resistant one was this relationship statistically significant. The impact of larval diet was smaller than the effect of age at exposure. We discuss our results and explain the implication of this study to resistance monitoring for public health and vector management.

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