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J Hered. 2013 May-Jun;104(3):341-56. doi: 10.1093/jhered/est008. Epub 2013 Mar 12.

The imprint of geologic history on within-island diversification of woodlouse-hunter spiders (Araneae, Dysderidae) in the Canary Islands.

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  • 1Departamento de Biología Animal, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. nemacias@ull.es.

Abstract

Geological processes and ecological adaptation are major drivers of diversification on oceanic islands. Although diversification in these islands is often interpreted as resulting from dispersal or island hopping rather than vicariance, this may not be the case in islands with complex geological histories. The island of Tenerife, in the Canary Islands, emerged in the late Miocene as 3 precursor islands that were subsequently connected and reisolated by volcanic cycles. The spider Dysdera verneaui is endemic to the island of Tenerife, where it is widely distributed throughout most island habitats, providing an excellent model to investigate the role of physical barriers and ecological adaptation in shaping within-island diversity. Here, we present evidence that the phylogeographic patterns of this species trace back to the independent emergence of the protoislands. Molecular markers (mitochondrial genes cox1, 16S, and nad1 and the nuclear genes ITS-2 and 28S) analyzed from 100 specimens (including a thorough sampling of D. verneaui populations and additional outgroups) identify 2 distinct evolutionary lineages that correspond to 2 precursor islands, each with diagnostic genital characters indicative of separate species status. Episodic introgression events between these 2 main evolutionary lineages explain the observed incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear markers, probably as a result of the homogenization of their ITS-2 sequence types. The most widespread lineage exhibits a complex population structure, which is compatible with either secondary contact, following connection of deeply divergent lineages, or alternatively, a back colonization from 1 precursor island to another.

PMID:
23482634
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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