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Scand J Psychol. 2013 Jun;54(3):250-60. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12044. Epub 2013 Mar 11.

The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire in Norway.

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  • 1Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Bergen, Christiesgate 12, Bergen, Norway. Ingrid.dundas@uib.no


The aim of this study was to adapt the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) for use in Norway. Three studies involving three different samples of university students (mean age 22 years, total N = 792) were conducted. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a five factor structure provided an acceptable fit to the data. All five factors loaded significantly on the overall mindfulness factor. As expected, correlations between the FFMQ total scores and subscales were positive and significant, ranging from 0.45 to 0.65. Correlations between FFMQ total/subscales and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) were significant and negative (since low scores on the MAAS indicate high mindfulness), ranging from r = -0.17 to -0.69. The Norwegian FFMQ total score was inversely correlated with all indicators of psychological health: neuroticism (r = -0.61), ruminative tendencies (r = -0.41), self-related negative thinking (r = -0.40), emotion regulation difficulties (r = -0.66) and depression (r = -0.46 to r = -0.65). In contrast to the other FFMQ subscales, the FFMQ Observe subscale did not have a positive relation to psychological health in our mostly non-meditating sample. However, being able to non-judgmentally observe one's inner life and environment is a part of the mindfulness construct that might emerge more clearly with more mindfulness training. We conclude that the Norwegian FFMQ has acceptable psychometric properties and can be recommended for use in Norway, especially in studies seeking to differentiate between different aspects of mindfulness and how these may change over time.

© 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

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