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Med J Malaysia. 2013;68(1):64-6.

Awake Craniotomy: A Case Series of Anaesthetic Management using a Combination of Scalp Block, Dexmedetomidine and Remifentanil in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.

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  • 1Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Jalan Sultanah Zainab II, Kota Bharu, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia.


Awake craniotomy is a brain surgery in patients who are kept awake when it is indicated for certain intracranial pathologies. The anaesthetic management strategy is very important to achieve the goals of the surgery. We describe a series of our first four cases performed under a combination of scalp block and conscious sedation. Scalp block was performed using a mixture of ropivacaine 0.7% and adrenaline 5 5µg/ ml administered to the nerves that innervate the scalp. Conscious sedation was achieved with a combination of two recently available drugs in our country, dexmedetomidine (selective α 2-agonist) and remifentanil (ultra-short acting opioid). Remifentanil was delivered in a target controlled infusion (TCI) mode.

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