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Indian J Cancer. 2012 Oct-Dec;49(4):410-8. doi: 10.4103/0019-509X.107749.

Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke among adults in Myanmar.

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  • 1Department of Health Planning, Ministry of Health, Myanmar.



Second-hand smoke (SHS) is a threat to people's health particularly in South-East Region including Myanmar.


To describe the exposure to SHS among the adult population of Myanmar.


The analysis was done based on the data relating to SHS exposure from 2009 Noncommunicable Risk Factor Survey conducted in Myanmar. A total of 7,429 respondents aged 15-64 from a nationally representative household-based cross-sectional multi-stage probability sample were used. Gender-specific estimates of the proportion of adults exposed to SHS were examined across various socio-demographic characteristics.


The exposure to SHS was 55.6% (52% among males and 57.8% among females) at home, 63.6% (71.9% among males and 54.7% among females) in indoor places and 23.3% (38.8% among males and 13.6% among females) in public places. SHS exposure at home was more common among females. However, males were more likely to be exposed at work and public places than females. SHS exposure at home and public places decreased with age in both sexes. In these settings, SHS exposure was related to education, residence, employment status, marital status, and income level. At workplaces, it was mainly related to educational attainment and occupational status.


Exposure was significantly high in settings having partial ban as compared with settings having a complete ban. The solution is simple and straightforward, smoke-free environments. The findings emphasize the need for continuing efforts to decrease the exposure and to increase the knowledge of its harmful effects.

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