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PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57198. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057198. Epub 2013 Feb 21.

Preliminary study on the effectiveness of short group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) on Indonesian older adults.

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  • 1Faculty of Psychology, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.

Erratum in

  • PLoS One. 2013;8(12). doi:10.1371/annotation/f1eba6ed-88d1-46e5-90e7-04ed13ac5439. Lubis, Dharmayati Utoyo [corrected to Utoyo, Dharmayati Bambang].


This research aims to develop evidence based affordable psychological therapy for Indonesian older adults. An affordable psychological therapy is important as there is virtually no managed care or health insurance that covers psychological therapy in Indonesia. Multicomponent group cognitive behavior therapy (GCBGT) was chosen as a starting point due to its extensive evidence, short sessions, and success for a wide range of psychological problems. The group format was chosen to address both the economic and the cultural context of Indonesia. Then, the developed treatment is tested to common psychological problems in older adults' population (anxiety, chronic pain, depression, and insomnia). The treatment consists of 8 sessions with twice a week meetings for 2.5 hours. There are similarities and differences among the techniques used in the treatment for the different psychological problems. The final participants are 38 older adults that are divided into the treatment groups; 8 participants joined the anxiety treatment, 10 participants for the chronic pain treatment, 10 participants for depression treatment, and lastly, 10 participants joined the insomnia treatment. The research design is pre-test post-test with within group analysis. We used principal outcome measure that is specific for each treatment group, as well as additional outcome measures. Overall, the result shows statistical significance change with large effect size for the principal outcome measure. In addition, the result for the additional measures varies from slight improvement with small effect size to statistically significant improvement with large effect size. The result indicates that short multicomponent GCBT is effective in alleviating various common psychological problems in Indonesian older adults. Therefore, multicomponent GCBT may be a good starting point to develop an effective and affordable psychological therapy for Indonesian older adults. Lastly, this result adds to the accumulating body of evidence on the effectiveness of multicomponent GCBT outside western context.

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