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Mol Neurobiol. 2013 Aug;48(1):190-204. doi: 10.1007/s12035-013-8425-7. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Role of the Toll Like receptor (TLR) radical cycle in chronic inflammation: possible treatments targeting the TLR4 pathway.

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  • 1Sportzenkoppel 54, 22359, Hamburg, Germany.

Abstract

Activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) complex, a receptor of the innate immune system, may underpin the pathophysiology of many human diseases, including asthma, cardiovascular disorder, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, autoimmune disorders, neuroinflammatory disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, clinical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, alcohol abuse, and toluene inhalation. TLRs are pattern recognition receptors that recognize damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria. Here we focus on the environmental factors, which are known to trigger TLR4, e.g., ozone, atmosphere particulate matter, long-lived reactive oxygen intermediate, pentachlorophenol, ionizing radiation, and toluene. Activation of the TLR4 pathways may cause chronic inflammation and increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and oxidative and nitrosative stress and therefore TLR-related diseases. This implies that drugs or substances that modify these pathways may prevent or improve the abovementioned diseases. Here we review some of the most promising drugs and agents that have the potential to attenuate TLR-mediated inflammation, e.g., anti-LPS strategies that aim to neutralize LPS (synthetic anti-LPS peptides and recombinant factor C) and TLR4/MyD88 antagonists, including eritoran, CyP, EM-163, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, 6-shogaol, cinnamon extract, N-acetylcysteine, melatonin, and molecular hydrogen. The authors posit that activation of the TLR radical (ROS/RNS) cycle is a common pathway underpinning many "civilization" disorders and that targeting the TLR radical cycle may be an effective method to treat many inflammatory disorders.

PMID:
23436141
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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