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J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2013 Nov;38(9):934-9. doi: 10.1177/1753193413479263. Epub 2013 Feb 22.

The pathogenesis of ulnar polydactyly in humans.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


The pathogenesis of ulnar polydactyly in humans is not known. There are numerous syndromes that are associated with ulnar polydactyly. We have noted that the genetic defects in these syndromes lead to a disturbance of the normal balance between the two forms of the Gli3 protein (the active and repressor forms of Gli3, which are known as Gli3-A and Gli3-R, respectively), leading to a relative increase in the Gli3-R protein. We offer the hypothesis of a unified pathogenesis of ulnar polydactyly through the relative predominance of Gli3-R.


Pathogenesis; post-axial polydactyly; syndromes; ulnar polydactyly

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